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Celiac disease

Written by Healthwords's team of doctors and pharmacists based in UK | Updated: 22.02.2023 | 3 min read

Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition where you react to eating gluten. Gluten provokes an immune response, causing damage to the bowel and causing tummy, pain, bloating, and other symptoms. Along with ongoing symptoms, if you keep eating gluten, this can have long-term implications, such as anemia and osteoporosis, as you will have difficulty absorbing essential nutrients.

Where is gluten found and what does it do?

Gluten is found in wheat, rye, and barley. These are the basis of pasta, bread, pastries, biscuits, beer, couscous, and breakfast cereal and they can be used as a thickening or coating agent in many sauces, soups, or ready meals. Oat products may also cause symptoms to flare for some people.

Gluten causes stomach pain, bloating, excessive gas, and diarrhea. You may also feel very tired and lose weight. But these symptoms can have lots of causes, so it’s important to get checked out by your doctor.

A rash may develop in celiac disease, but it’s not common. It’s red, itchy, can blister, and appears on the elbows, knees, buttocks, or scalp.

Celiac disease in children can cause similar abdominal symptoms, vomiting, and pale stools. They may not be growing as quickly as expected, or the start of puberty may be delayed. These are all reasons to take your child to see their doctor.

Who gets celiac disease?

Celiac disease is fairly common: it affects about 1% of the people in the US. Celiac disease can start at any age, and – like most autoimmune diseases – it's not known exactly why it occurs. Females are more likely to suffer, and it can run in families. It’s also more likely with other autoimmune conditions like Type 1 diabetes.

When should I see my doctor?

If you or your child have symptoms of celiac disease, you should book a routine appointment with your doctor. Keep a food and symptom diary to take along to your consultation. You should not try cutting out gluten from your diet until after you have had a diagnosis, as it makes tests less accurate.

The doctor will ask you about your symptoms and any other conditions and relevant conditions that run in your family. The doctor may examine your tummy and any rashes, and they are likely to order blood tests. There's a blood test specifically for celiac disease – if this is positive, you will be referred to a specialist, a gastroenterologist, who will confirm the diagnosis. They will use a flexible camera from the mouth to pass into the gut (an endoscopy or gastroscopy), and they can take a tissue sample from the gut lining. This is less scary than it sounds. If this confirms celiac disease, you will be offered further information and support, including a dietician’s advice on following a gluten-free diet.

How do I avoid gluten when food shopping?

Look out for the gluten-free label for foods guaranteed to contain no gluten, and you may find gluten alternatives such as wheat-free bread and flour. Many supermarkets have an entire aisle devoted to gluten-free foods.

Supplements are also available to boost your vitamin B stores or fiber needs and to replace calcium and vitamin D.

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