The flu is common, and about 1 in every 10 people develop it each year. Influenza is the name of the virus that causes flu and its symptoms.
Flu commonly causes a fever, sore throat, cough, sore muscles, and generally feeling poorly. Symptoms tend to come on quite fast, as opposed to the gradual onset the common cold brings – different viruses are responsible for colds.
For most people, the flu will lead to some days spent in bed feeling rotten. For the elderly, young children, or people with other serious medical problems, it can be serious, and a number of people die from the flu each year.
The flu virus typically hits in winter; that’s why the flu vaccine is offered in the run-up to flu season every autumn. The virus can change a bit from year to year, making it hard for our immune systems to recognize it, so each time, we may get severe symptoms as the immune system sets to work to protect us.
The flu shots keep up with this ever-changing virus, and that’s why we need a booster every year.
The symptoms of the flu are similar to the symptoms of COVID-19, so it is important, if you have a continuous cough, fever, or a loss of taste or smell, to stay at home and arrange a test.
Most cases of the flu can be treated at home with rest and good hydration. Most people get better over one or two weeks.
In a small number of cases, the flu can be serious. This is in children, the elderly, and in pregnancy, if you have an underlying health condition such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or diabetes, or you have a lowered immune system.
The flu shot is available from your local pharmacy - usually at no charge.
The flu is very contagious. It can be passed in tiny saliva droplets in the air from someone coughing, sneezing, or even talking. It can also be passed on by touching any surfaces or other people’s hands that are contaminated by droplets and then touching your mouth or face.
You can pass on the flu virus a couple of days before developing symptoms yourself, and you remain contagious while you have a fever and other symptoms.
Self-isolating while you have symptoms and regular hand washing will help others and lower the chance of passing on the flu. By wearing a face mask, you also protect others and will lower the chance of you catching the flu in the first place.
To help with the symptoms of the flu, you should rest, stay well-hydrated with water and hydration salts and take acetaminophen to help with fever and any pain from a sore throat or muscle aches.
If you have the flu, you are not fit to work.
Because the flu is so infectious, your doctor may choose to do a phone consultation. The doctor will ask about your symptoms and, if necessary, examine you in person. Depending on the possible diagnosis, blood tests, urine tests, or imaging (for example, a chest X-ray) could be carried out, or you may be referred to a specialist department.
The doctor may also prescribe some medication to help with your symptoms. In a small number of people who have severe cases of the flu, hospital admission may be required.
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